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By Naomi Rogers

In the course of international struggle II, polio epidemics within the usa have been seen because the country's "other struggle at home": they can be neither estimated nor contained, and paralyzed sufferers confronted incapacity in an international unfriendly to the disabled. those realities have been exacerbated by way of the scientific community's enforced orthodoxy in treating the disorder, remedies that more often than not consisted of useless treatments.

Polio Wars is the tale of Sister Elizabeth Kenny -- "Sister" being a connection with her prestige as a senior nurse, no longer a spiritual designation -- who arrived within the US from Australia in 1940 espousing an unorthodox method of the therapy of polio. Kenny approached the affliction as a non-neurological ailment, championing such novel treatments as scorching packs and muscle routines in preference to splinting, surgical procedure, and immobilization. Her care embodied a unique variety of medical perform, one in every of positive, patient-centered remedies that gave wish to determined sufferers and households.

The Kenny strategy, first and foremost brushed off through the USA scientific institution, received overwhelming aid over the resultant decade, together with the endorsement of the nationwide beginning for childish Paralysis (today's March of Dimes), America's biggest sickness philanthropy. by means of 1952, a Gallup ballot pointed out Sister Kenny as such a lot fashionable girl in the US, and she or he went directly to function a professional witness at Congressional hearings on clinical examine, a starting place director, and the topic of a Hollywood movie. Kenny breached specialist and social mores, crafting a public personality that mixed Florence Nightingale and Marie Curie.

By the Nineteen Eighties, following the invention of the Salk and Sabin vaccines and the March of Dimes' withdrawal from polio learn, so much americans had forgotten polio, its treatments, and Sister Kenny. In studying this historic arc and the public's means of forgetting, Naomi Rogers offers Kenny as an individual worthy remembering. Polio Wars recalls either the fervour and the practices of medical care and explores them of their personal terms.

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Dickson to expensive Professor Myers, might three 1946, field 19, Sister Kenny Institute, 1938–1946, Jay Arthur Myers Papers, college of Minnesota information and targeted Collections, Minneapolis (hereafter UMN-ASC). 23. “Appendix A: file via Dr. Harold Crawford” in Cilento “Report on Sister E. Kenny’s After-Treatments,” [19]; see additionally Pye, interview 1980, Fryer Library. 24. Philippa Martyr “ ‘A Small rate to Pay for Peace’: The Elizabeth Kenny Controversy Reexamined” Australian ancient reports (1997) 27: 47–65; “Sister Kenny Visits Bendigo health facility and Tells Her stories” Bendigo Advertiser January 10 1938. 25. For the declare that Kenny’s mom had contacted Sir Littleton Groome, their neighborhood consultant, to strain Hanlon, see Cohn Sister Kenny, 86–87. 26. Elizabeth Kenny, childish Paralysis and Cerebral Diplegia: tools Used for the recovery of functionality (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1937), four. 27. See Alexander Maverick, 55–61; Kenny to expensive Mr. Nichols, September 18 1944, Cohn Papers, MHS-K; Cohn Sister Kenny, 82–92. 28. [Cohn interview with] James Guinane, November 23 1955, Cohn Papers, MHS-K; see additionally Cohn Sister Kenny, 82–92; [Cohn moment interview with] Dr. Philip L. okay. Addison, October 25 1955, Cohn Papers, MHS-K. 29. Kenny, childish Paralysis and Cerebral Diplegia, 19, eleven, sixty four; see additionally “Reviews: Muscle Reeducation” scientific magazine of Australia (May eight 1937) 1: 713–714; J. V. Guinane “Introductory Notes” Kenny, childish Paralysis and Cerebral Diplegia, xvii–xxxiii. 30. See Alexander Maverick, 58–59, 63–65. 31. R. W. Cilento “Report at the Muscle Re-Education hospital, Townsville (Sister E. Kenny), and its paintings” [August nine 1934] field thirteen, Elizabeth Kenny assortment, Fryer Library, 4–5. 32. On Cilento see Fedora Gould Fisher Raphael Cilento: A Biography (St. Lucia: college of Queensland Press, 1994); Milton J. Lewis The People’s overall healthiness: Public well-being in Australia, 1788–1950 (London: Praeger Publishers, 2003); Warwick Anderson The Cultivation of Whiteness: technology, future health and Racial future in Australia (Melbourne: Melbourne college Press, 2002); Douglas Gordon “Sir Raphael West Cilento” clinical magazine of Australia (September sixteen 1985) 143: 259–260; Alexander Maverick, 62–66. 33. Cilento “Report on Sister E. Kenny’s After-Treatment,” 8–9, 12–14, 15–16; Cilento “Report at the Muscle Re-Education hospital, Townsville,” 4–5. 34. “Infantile Paralysis: hospital for Brisbane” Townsville day-by-day Bulletin might 15 1935; “Sister Kenny: Brisbane Bombshell” Townsville day-by-day Bulletin may well 14 1935; [Cohn interview with] Sir Raphael Cilento, November sixteen 1955, Cohn Papers, MHS-K. On Wilhelmina G. Wright see Alexander Maverick, 79–80. Wright’s 1912 article “Muscle education within the remedy of childish Paralysis” from the Boston clinical and Surgical magazine used to be republished through the U. S. Public future health carrier. 35. “Sister Kenny: Brisbane Bombshell” Townsville day-by-day Bulletin may possibly 14 1935; “Infantile Paralysis: hospital for Brisbane” Townsville day-by-day Bulletin might 15 1935. 36. Cilento “Report on Sister E. Kenny’s After-Treatment,” 8–9.

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