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Turbulent Flows is an up to date and complete graduate textual content in this vital subject in fluid dynamics. The e-book involves components: half I presents a normal advent to turbulent flows, how they behave, how they are often defined quantitatively, and their basic actual methods. half II is anxious with assorted techniques for modeling, or simulating, turbulent flows. Key appendices current the mandatory mathematical ideas. whereas basically meant for engineering graduate scholars, this e-book may also be helpful to scholars in utilized arithmetic, physics, oceanography and atmospheric sciences, in addition to to researchers and working towards engineers.

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Four suggest speed profiles 7. 1. five The friction legislations and the Reynolds quantity 7. 1. 6 Reynolds stresses 7. 1. 7 Lengthscales and the blending size 7. 2 Pipe flow 7. 2. 1 The friction legislations for soft pipes 7. 2. 2 Wall roughness 7. three Boundary layers 7. three. 1 an outline of the flow 7. three. 2 Mean-momentum equations 7. three. three suggest speed profiles 7. three. four The overlap quarter reconsidered 7. three. five Reynolds-stress balances 7. three. 6 extra effects 7. four Turbulent constructions 264 264 264 266 268 271 278 281 288 290 290 295 298 299 three hundred 302 308 313 320 322 6. five 6. 6 6. 7 7 ix x Contents half : MODELLING AND SIMULATION 333 eight An advent to modelling and simulation eight. 1 The problem eight. 2 an outline of ways eight. three standards for appraising types 335 335 336 336 nine Direct numerical simulation nine. 1 Homogeneous turbulence nine. 1. 1 Pseudo-spectral equipment nine. 1. 2 The computational fee nine. 1. three Artificial modifications and incomplete solution nine. 2 Inhomogeneous flows nine. 2. 1 Channel flow nine. 2. 2 loose shear flows nine. 2. three stream over a backward-facing step nine. three dialogue 344 344 344 346 352 353 353 354 355 356 10 Turbulent-viscosity versions 10. 1 The turbulent-viscosity speculation 10. 1. 1 The intrinsic assumption 10. 1. 2 The specific assumption 10. 2 Algebraic versions 10. 2. 1 Uniform turbulent viscosity 10. 2. 2 The mixing-length version 10. three Turbulent-kinetic-energy types 10. four The k–ε version 10. four. 1 an outline 10. four. 2 The version equation for ε 10. four. three dialogue 10. five additional turbulent-viscosity types 10. five. 1 The k–ω version 10. five. 2 The Spalart–Allmaras version 358 359 359 364 365 365 366 369 373 373 375 382 383 383 385 eleven Reynolds-stress and similar versions eleven. 1 advent eleven. 2 The pressure–rate-of-strain tensor eleven. three Return-to-isotropy versions eleven. three. 1 Rotta’s version eleven. three. 2 The characterization of Reynolds-stress anisotropy eleven. three. three Nonlinear return-to-isotropy versions eleven. four Rapid-distortion concept eleven. four. 1 Rapid-distortion equations 387 387 388 392 392 393 398 404 405 Contents eleven. five eleven. 6 eleven. 7 eleven. eight eleven. nine eleven. 10 12 eleven. four. 2 The evolution of a Fourier mode eleven. four. three The evolution of the spectrum eleven. four. four speedy distortion of in the beginning isotropic turbulence eleven. four. five ultimate comments Pressure–rate-of-strain types eleven. five. 1 the elemental version (LRR-IP) eleven. five. 2 different pressure–rate-of-strain versions Extension to inhomogeneous flows eleven. 6. 1 Redistribution eleven. 6. 2 Reynolds-stress delivery eleven. 6. three The dissipation equation Near-wall remedies eleven. 7. 1 Near-wall effects eleven. 7. 2 Turbulent viscosity eleven. 7. three version equations for okay and ε eleven. 7. four The dissipation tensor eleven. 7. five Fluctuating strain eleven. 7. 6 Wall features Elliptic leisure versions Algebraic pressure and nonlinear viscosity versions eleven. nine. 1 Algebraic rigidity types eleven. nine. 2 Nonlinear turbulent viscosity dialogue PDF equipment 12. 1 The Eulerian PDF of pace 12. 1. 1 Definitions and houses 12. 1. 2 The PDF delivery equation 12. 1. three The PDF of the fluctuating speed 12. 2 The version pace PDF equation 12. 2. 1 The generalized Langevin version 12. 2. 2 The evolution of the PDF 12. 2. three Corresponding Reynolds-stress versions 12.

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