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Additional info for Working Toward Whiteness: How America's Immigrants Became White: The Strange Journey from Ellis Island to the Suburbs
18 Gerard Leeflang, writer of the brilliant American Travels of a Dutch Hobo, was once set upon via a “big fellow” in rural Iowa in 1923 simply because Leeflang’s spouse introduced that they have been from Pennsylvania. “Lots of foreigners and extraterrestrial beings there,” the Iowan countered, “too many—we don’t prefer to have them right here and to have our groups polluted with Negroes, Jews and different nonwhites like in Pennsylvania. . . . We certain need to take care that the USA continues to be white. ” Barney Keefe, a memorable personality in a scene from James T. Farrell’s novel The younger Manhood of Studs Lonigan, set in 1924, had almost an analogous line, as he tellingly combined race and tradition: “You comprehend, you could inform an inferior race incidentally they costume. The Polacks and the Dagoes, and niggers are an analogous, basically the niggers are the bottom. ”19 in lots of methods, then, immigration limit represented the triumph of starkly reactionary, pro-Nordic racism opposed to new immigrants. basically the pointy matters over new immigrant loyalty, willingness to struggle, and flair that global warfare I provoked helped valid this standpoint. Robert Ward’s modern remark at the 1924 laws traced its triumph convincingly to scrutiny (however jaundiced) of the habit of the “various alien racial teams” through the battle. Madison Grant’s co-thinker, Lathrop Stoddard, mirrored that the “late warfare” had conclusively verified “the fact that the fundamental think about human affairs isn't really politics, yet race. ”20 even if the nationwide kingdom made a few wartime efforts to decrease open monitors of anti-immigrant hatred (“I mustn’t name you ‘Mikey’ and also you mustn’t name me ‘wop’/For Uncle Sammy says it’s incorrect and tricks we should stop”), the coercive energy of the state labored to foster nativist racism. The government’s wartime loyalty courses and its deportation of alien radicals in keeping with the postwar “red scare” as a result of the 1919-1920 strike waves furthered the conflation of race and immigration as threats. A battery of hugely biased intelligence assessments for infantrymen additional the problem of genetic inferiority to the combination. in a single case the assessments without delay measured racial wisdom, asking what percentage legs a “kaffir” (the tough South African cognate of nigger) has. As Horace Kallen famous on the time, those exams grew to become important to “racial theories descanting variously upon the paranormal superiority of the Nordic inventory. ” attempt results—like these bought from 1912 examinations which “proved” that over eighty percentage of a giant pattern of Jewish, Russian, Italian, and Hungarian immigrants being processed at Ellis Island have been “feeble-minded” or even “moronic”—yielded simply to interpretations which argued that blacks and new immigrants have been childlike and inferior, and constituted a probability to democracy. 21 The psychologist Robert Yerkes used those assessments in a hugely seen 1923 article in Atlantic per 30 days to take care of that “races are rather as considerably various” in intelligence as are participants and that modifications between Europeans are “almost as nice because the highbrow modifications among negro and white.